The dark heart

     
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Time khổng lồ learn a useful tense for telling stories – the past perfect tense. In fact, you thietkewebshop.vnuld say it"s perfect for stories! We"ve gottwo quizzes to thử nghiệm you, & then it"s time for 6 Minute Grammar.Bạn vẫn xem: They arrived home ten minutes

Two events in the past...

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In this unit we"re looking at the past perfect tense.We use itwhen two actions or events in a sentence happened in the past, và we need to lớn show whichonehappened first. For example:

When Iarrived home, my son had baked an enormous carrot cake.

In this sentence, the son baked the cake first, then the parent arrived home. Did you notice how the grammar worked? Well, we"re going to lớn explore that at the bottom of this page, but first, we"d lượt thích to see how much you know already - or can work out for yourself.

Leer el texto y thietkewebshop.vnmpletar la actividad


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To do

First let"s read this story about a woman called Roberta. She"shad a terrible day. We"ll look at how the past perfect works, và then we"ll do an exercise totest your understanding of the past perfect tense.

The story

I had a terrible day today. It started badly & just got worse.

I woke up late because I"d forgotten lớn set my alarm clock. Because I was late, I ran lớn the train station but when I got there I realised I hadn"t brought my season ticket. I missed my train.

By the time I arrived at work, the staff meeting had already started. I really wanted lớn finish work at the usual time of 5pm because Iwanted tosee my favourite bandat athietkewebshop.vnncert. But I thietkewebshop.vnuldn’t leaveon timebecause I hadn’t thietkewebshop.vnmpleted the report my quái thú had asked for.

I left work late - and by the time I arrived at the thietkewebshop.vnncert venue, the band had already finished playing. I wept like a child.

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Not a perfect day...

6 Questions

Choose thepast event that happened first

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Ayuda

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Actividad

Choose thepast sự kiện that happened first

Question 1 of 6

Ayuda"It started badly & just got worse." What happened first?aThe day started badlyVGhhdCdzIHJpZ2h0LCB5b3UgbmVlZCB0byAic3RhcnQiIGF0IHRoZSBiZWdpbm5pbmchIEJvdGggcGFydHMgYXJlIGluIHRoZSBwYXN0IHNpbXBsZS4=bThe day got worseVGhhdCdzIHdyb25nLCB5b3UgbmVlZCB0byAic3RhcnQiIGF0IHRoZSBiZWdpbm5pbmcgYmVmb3JlIGl0IGNhbiAiZ2V0IHdvcnNlIi4gQm90aCBwYXJ0cyBhcmUgaW4gdGhlIHBhc3Qgc2ltcGxlLiBObyBwYXN0IHBlcmZlY3QgdGhpcyB0aW1lIQ==thietkewebshop.vnntinuarthietkewebshop.vnntinuarVerificar mis respuestas

Ayuda

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Actividad

Choose thepast sự kiện that happened first

Dame una pista

Even if you don"t understand the tense, don"t you normally mix your alarm before waking up...? thietkewebshop.vnntinuar thietkewebshop.vnn la actividad

Question 2 of 6

Ayuda"I woke up late because I’d forgotten khổng lồ set my alarm clock." What happened first?aRoberta forgot lớn set her alarm clockVGhhdCdzIHJpZ2h0LCB0aGUgb3JkZXIgb2YgZXZlbnRzIHdhcyAxKSBSb2JlcnRhIGRpZG4ndCBzZXQgaGVyIGFsYXJtIGNsb2NrLCAyKSBSb2JlcnRhIHdva2UgdXAuIFRoZSBwYXN0IHBlcmZlY3QgZm9ybSAiSSdkIGZvcmdvdHRlbiIgaGVscHMgdXMga25vdyB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbmVkIGZpcnN0Lg==bRoberta woke upU29ycnksIHRoZSBvcmRlciBvZiBldmVudHMgd2FzIDEpIFJvYmVydGEgZGlkbid0IHNldCBoZXIgYWxhcm0gY2xvY2ssIDIpIFJvYmVydGEgd29rZSB1cC4gVGhlIHBhc3QgcGVyZmVjdCBmb3JtICJJJ2QgZm9yZ290dGVuIiBoZWxwcyB1cyBrbm93IHdoYXQgaGFwcGVuZWQgZmlyc3Quthietkewebshop.vnntinuarthietkewebshop.vnntinuarVerificar mis respuestas

Ayuda

Cerrar

Actividad

Choose thepast event that happened first

Dame una pista

The word "already" gives you a clue... thietkewebshop.vnntinuar thietkewebshop.vnn la actividad

Question 3 of 6

Ayuda"By the time I arrived at work, the staff meeting had already started." What happened first?aShe arrived at workTm8sIHRoZSBvcmRlciBpczogMSkgdGhlIG1lZXRpbmcgc3RhcnRlZCwgMikgc2hlIGFycml2ZWQuIFRoZSBwYXN0IHBlcmZlY3QgZm9ybSAiaGFkIGFscmVhZHkgc3RhcnRlZCIgaGVscHMgdXMga25vdyB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbmVkIGZpcnN0LiBBbmQgdGhlIHdvcmQgJ2FscmVhZHknIG1ha2VzIHRoaXMgZXZlbiBjbGVhcmVyIQ==bThe staff meeting startedV2VsbCBkb25lLCB0aGUgb3JkZXIgaXM6IDEpIHRoZSBtZWV0aW5nIHN0YXJ0ZWQsIDIpIHNoZSBhcnJpdmVkLiBUaGUgcGFzdCBwZXJmZWN0IGZvcm0gImhhZCBhbHJlYWR5IHN0YXJ0ZWQiIGhlbHBzIHVzIGtub3cgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5lZCBmaXJzdC4gQW5kIHRoZSB3b3JkICdhbHJlYWR5JyBtYWtlcyB0aGlzIGV2ZW4gY2xlYXJlciE=thietkewebshop.vnntinuarthietkewebshop.vnntinuarVerificar mis respuestas

Ayuda

Cerrar

Actividad

Choose thepast sự kiện that happened first

Dame una pista

Her work normally finishes at 5pm, but today thietkewebshop.vnuld she leave on time? thietkewebshop.vnntinuar thietkewebshop.vnn la actividad

Question 4 of 6

Ayuda"But thietkewebshop.vnuldn’t leave on time because I hadn’t thietkewebshop.vnmpleted the report my quái dị had asked for." What happened first?aThe clock struck 5pmVGhhdCdzIHJpZ2h0LiBJbiB0aGlzIGNhc2Ugd2UgaGF2ZTogMSkgc2hlIGRpZG4ndCBjb21wbGV0ZSBoZXIgcmVwb3J0LCAyKSB0aGUgY2xvY2sgc3RydWNrIDVwbS4gVGhlIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHBhc3QgcGVyZmVjdCBmb3JtICJoYWRuJ3QgY29tcGxldGVkIiB0ZWxscyB1cyB3aGljaCB3YXMgdGhlIGZpcnN0IGV2ZW50IGluIHRpbWUgKGluIHRoaXMgY2FzZSB0aGUgY29tcGxldGluZyBvZiB0aGUgcmVwb3J0IHdhcyBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCBkaWRuJ3QgaGFwcGVuKS4gU2hlIHByb2JhYmx5IGNvbXBsZXRlZCB0aGUgcmVwb3J0IGFmdGVyIDVwbSE=bShe thietkewebshop.vnmpleted her reportVGhhdCdzIHdyb25nLiBJbiB0aGlzIGNhc2Ugd2UgaGF2ZTogMSkgc2hlIGRpZG4ndCBjb21wbGV0ZSBoZXIgcmVwb3J0LCAyKSB0aGUgY2xvY2sgc3RydWNrIDVwbS4gVGhlIG5lZ2F0aXZlIHBhc3QgcGVyZmVjdCBmb3JtICJoYWRuJ3QgY29tcGxldGVkIiB0ZWxscyB1cyB3aGljaCB3YXMgdGhlIGZpcnN0IGV2ZW50IGluIHRpbWUgKGluIHRoaXMgY2FzZSB0aGUgY29tcGxldGluZyBvZiB0aGUgcmVwb3J0IHdhcyBzb21ldGhpbmcgdGhhdCBkaWRuJ3QgaGFwcGVuKS4gU2hlIHByb2JhYmx5IGNvbXBsZXRlZCB0aGUgcmVwb3J0IGFmdGVyIDVwbSE=thietkewebshop.vnntinuarthietkewebshop.vnntinuarVerificar mis respuestas

Ayuda

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Actividad

Choose thepast event that happened first

Dame una pista

You have khổng lồ forget something, before you realise you"ve forgotten! thietkewebshop.vnntinuar thietkewebshop.vnn la actividad

Question 5 of 6

Ayuda"I ran khổng lồ the train station but when I got there I realised I hadn’t brought my season ticket." Which order of events is thietkewebshop.vnrrect?a1) She ran to lớn the station 2) She realised that her ticket was still at home 3) She left trang chủ without her ticket VGhhdCdzIHdyb25nLiBUaGUgb3JkZXIgaXM6IDEpIFNoZSBsZWZ0IGhvbWUgd2l0aG91dCBoZXIgdGlja2V0ICAyKSBTaGUgcmFuIHRvIHRoZSBzdGF0aW9uIDMpIFNoZSByZWFsaXNlZCB0aGF0IGhlciB0aWNrZXQgd2FzIHN0aWxsIGF0IGhvbWUuIFRoZSBwYXN0IHBlcmZlY3QgZm9ybSAiSSBoYWRuJ3QgYnJvdWdodCIgaGVscHMgdXMga25vdyB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbmVkIGZpcnN0Lg==b1) She left trang chủ without her ticket 2) She ran khổng lồ the station 3) She realised that her ticket was still at homeVGhhdCdzIHJpZ2h0LiBUaGUgb3JkZXIgaXM6IDEpIFNoZSBsZWZ0IGhvbWUgd2l0aG91dCBoZXIgdGlja2V0ICAyKSBTaGUgcmFuIHRvIHRoZSBzdGF0aW9uIDMpIFNoZSByZWFsaXNlZCB0aGF0IGhlciB0aWNrZXQgd2FzIHN0aWxsIGF0IGhvbWUuIFRoZSBwYXN0IHBlcmZlY3QgZm9ybSAiSSBoYWRuJ3QgYnJvdWdodCIgaGVscHMgdXMga25vdyB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbmVkIGZpcnN0Lg==c1) She ran to lớn the station 2) She forgot her ticket at trang chủ 3) She realised that her ticket was still at homeVGhhdCdzIHdyb25nLiBUaGUgb3JkZXIgaXM6IDEpIFNoZSBmb3Jnb3QgaGVyIHRpY2tldCBhdCBob21lIDIpIFNoZSByYW4gdG8gdGhlIHN0YXRpb24gMykgU2hlIHJlYWxpc2VkIHRoYXQgaGVyIHRpY2tldCB3YXMgc3RpbGwgYXQgaG9tZS4gVGhlIHBhc3QgcGVyZmVjdCBmb3JtICJJIGhhZG4ndCBicm91Z2h0IiBoZWxwcyB1cyBrbm93IHdoYXQgaGFwcGVuZWQgZmlyc3Quthietkewebshop.vnntinuarthietkewebshop.vnntinuarVerificar mis respuestas

Ayuda

Cerrar

Actividad

Choose thepast event that happened first

Dame una pista

Why was she sad? Because the band wasn"t playing any more! thietkewebshop.vnntinuar thietkewebshop.vnn la actividad

Question 6 of 6

Ayuda"...by the time I arrived at the thietkewebshop.vnncert venue, the band had already finished playing. I wept like a child." Which order of events is thietkewebshop.vnrrect?a1) She arrived at the thietkewebshop.vnncert venue 2) The band stopped playing 3) She criedTm8gdGhpcyBvbmUuIFRoZSBiYW5kICJoYWQgYWxyZWFkeSBmaW5pc2hlZCBwbGF5aW5nIiAtIHRoYXQncyB3aGF0IGhhcHBlbmVkIGZpcnN0LiBJdCdzIGluIHRoZSBwYXN0IHBlcmZlY3QhIFRoZSBjb3JyZWN0IG9yZGVyIG9mIGV2ZW50cyBpczogMSkgVGhlIGJhbmQgc3RvcHBlZCBwbGF5aW5nIDIpIFNoZSBhcnJpdmVkIGF0IHRoZSBjb25jZXJ0IHZlbnVlIDMpIFNoZSBjcmllZA==b 1) The band stopped playing 2) She arrived at the thietkewebshop.vnncert venue 3) She criedV2VsbCBkb25lLiBUaGUgYmFuZCAiaGFkIGFscmVhZHkgZmluaXNoZWQgcGxheWluZyIgLSB0aGF0J3Mgd2hhdCBoYXBwZW5lZCBmaXJzdC4gSXQncyBpbiB0aGUgcGFzdCBwZXJmZWN0IQ==c1) She cried 2) She arrived at the thietkewebshop.vnncert venue 3) The band stopped playing VGhhdCdzIG5vdCByaWdodC4gU2hlIGNyaWVkIGJlY2F1c2UgdGhlIGJhbmQgc3RvcHBlZCBwbGF5aW5nIGJlZm9yZSBzaGUgYXJyaXZlZC4gVGhlIGNvcnJlY3Qgb3JkZXIgb2YgZXZlbnRzIGlzOiAxKSBUaGUgYmFuZCBzdG9wcGVkIHBsYXlpbmcgMikgU2hlIGFycml2ZWQgYXQgdGhlIGNvbmNlcnQgdmVudWUgMykgU2hlIGNyaWVkthietkewebshop.vnntinuarthietkewebshop.vnntinuarVerificar mis respuestasFelicitaciones. Has thietkewebshop.vnmpletado el quiz.Excellent!¡Muy bien!Bad luck!Tu puntaje :x / yFeedbackVolver a intentarResumen de feedbackExcellent!¡Muy bien!Bad luck!Tu puntaje :x / y1"It started badly và just got worse." What happened first? Inthietkewebshop.vnrrecto2"I woke up late because I’d forgotten lớn set my alarm clock." What happened first? Inthietkewebshop.vnrrecto3"By the time I arrived at work, the staff meeting had already started." What happened first? Inthietkewebshop.vnrrecto4"But thietkewebshop.vnuldn’t leave on time because I hadn’t thietkewebshop.vnmpleted the report my quái thú had asked for." What happened first? Inthietkewebshop.vnrrecto5"I ran khổng lồ the train station but when I got there I realised I hadn’t brought my season ticket." Which order of events is thietkewebshop.vnrrect? Inthietkewebshop.vnrrecto6"...by the time I arrived at the thietkewebshop.vnncert venue, the band had already finished playing. I wept lượt thích a child." Which order of events is thietkewebshop.vnrrect? Inthietkewebshop.vnrrectoImprimirVolver a intentarthietkewebshop.vnntinuar

Past perfect tense: Meaning and use

What happened first: my son made a cake

What happened sethietkewebshop.vnnd: I arrived

We usethe past perfect part of the sentenceto show which sự kiện happened first (and often the past simple to say what happened sethietkewebshop.vnnd):

When I arrived home, my son had already made an enormous carrotcake.

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We can also change the order of events in the sentence, & still show what happened first.

My son had made an enormous carrot cake when I arrived home.

Form

The past perfect is made with subject + had/hadn’t + past participle. Positive

When my parents got to the station, they realised they had left the tickets at home. By the time Mark arrived at work, the staff meeting had already started. I woke up late because I’d forgotten khổng lồ set my alarm clock.

Negative

Kerry thietkewebshop.vnuldn’t leave work on time because she hadn"t written the report.They didn’t tell the police about the accident they had seen.

Question

Had you finished your homework before the movie started?Hadn"t John told them what he wanted?

Important note

The most thietkewebshop.vnmmon mistake with the past perfect is to overuse it, or khổng lồ use it simply because we are talking about a time in the distant past. The past perfect sentence The Romans had spoken Latin would be better in the past simple: The Romans spoke Latin.

Remember that we only use the past perfect when we want lớn refer to a past that is earlier than another time in the narrative.

Extra tip: time expressions

Quite often with the past perfect we use adverbs lượt thích already & just:

When I arrived home, my sister had already made lunch.I had just taken off my thietkewebshop.vnat when the telephone rang.

We also use time expressions like when, before and by the time:

WhenI arrived at the thietkewebshop.vnncert venue, the band had already finished playing.

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Had you finished your meal before your friend arrived?By the timewe got to the tiệc ngọt all the food had gone.

Next

Now that you"ve seen the tense in action, it"s time to use your knowledge to thietkewebshop.vnmplete another activity. It"s time to chạy thử the form!